WINFIRE with the Fire Prediction Model (FPM) integrated simulates events that accompany a single threat penetrating through a vehicle and impacting a container of flammable fluid (e.g., a fuel tank or pressurized line containing fuel or hydraulic fluid). Specifically, the model predicts whether ignition would occur and continues modeling events through fire growth and spread. Simulating ignition is a unique capability that distinguishes FPM from other models outside the survivability discipline, which concentrate primarily on the sustained combustion phase of fires and do not address ballistic-initiated fires.
FPM simulates a number of generic threats to combat aircraft (including armor-piercing incendiary [API] rounds, high-explosive incendiary [HEI] rounds, and fragments), as well as other ignition sources, such as sparks and hot surfaces (e.g., from engine casing and bleed air components). In addition, the model contains temperature-dependent fluid properties for standard JP-4, JP-5, JP-8, and diesel fuels, as well as MIL-H-5606 and MIL-H-83282 hydraulic fluids. A user can also enter custom fluids into FPM simulations as needed. A fire extinguishing capability is also included, and the model has an extensive library of extinguishing agents from which to choose.
FPM also models complex mechanisms that affect fire behavior, such as hydrodynamic ram (HRAM), liquid spray geometry, flow and migration, and combustion by-products. In addition to leveraging built-in data and submodels, FPM can also interface with the ProjPen and FATEPEN libraries to calculate threat-plate interactions and support ignition calculations.
FPM has primarily been used for test predictions and design engineering within the aircraft, ground vehicle, and threat lethality communities. The model is particularly useful in supporting key design areas within the survivability discipline, including test planning, vulnerability assessments, and system design. FPM uses in test planning and evaluation include shotline selection, pre-test predictions, post-test analysis, and the identification of required instrumentation for test data collection.
FPM requires the following data for execution:Target geometry (FPM cannot currently accept outside formats).Material types.Threat types and function/flash location, as well as encounter conditions.Flammable liquid type and state (liquid/vapor, temperature, pressure, line/tank).
FPM outputs the probability of ignition and a 4D file with cell data, including temperature, oxygen, fuel vapor, and additional species. This file can be read with the FPM 3D viewer, which will play back the combustion phase of the model run to allow the user to study the fire growth and movement. The viewer also allows the user to place sensors in any cell to generate plots of any of the data vs. time.
Page Distribution Statement:
Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Model Distribution Statement:
The WINFIRE CD is Unclassified.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C.Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors, OPERATIONAL USE, February 2011. Other requests for this document shall be referred to 96 TG/OL – AC/DSIAC 2700 D Street Building, 1661, WPAFB, OH 45433.
WARNING− This media contains technical data whose export is restricted by the Arms Export Control Act (Title 22, U.S.C., Sec 2751, et seq.) or the Export Administration Act of 1979 (Title 50, U.S.C., App. 2401 et seq), as amended. Violations of these export laws are subject to severe criminal penalties. Disseminate in accordance with provisions of DoD Directive 5230.25.